Norbert Hanrieder, a seminarian between October and July , kept a diary over the course of his studies, which is an excellent source for the everyday life of young seminarians. On Hanrieder in general, see: Alumnen by Place of Birth, Just as interesting as the question of how the vision from above affected enrollment from below is an inquiry into the social origin of the Alumnen. Although the profession of the parents is not listed in the statistics, the place of birth was. Evidence in recent literature points to the increasing ruralization of the priesthood in the nineteenth century, meaning that over the course of the century, an increasing number of new priests came from rural rather than urban, and lower class rather than middle or upper class, backgrounds.
Thesis, Theologische Hochschule Linz, In any given year, the overwhelming majority of the Alumnen came from rural areas and non-industrial smaller towns, though there does seem to be a general declining trend among the Alumnen from urban areas, especially when one factors in the dramatic redistribution of population that occurred in favor of urban areas during the last third of the century see Figure 8. Official 9 7 14 21 14 24 21 25 Industrialist 1 1 1 Worker 1 4 2 4 Merchant 3 3 2 8 8 13 10 16 Artisan 7 3 7 17 15 23 24 16 Innkeeper 4 3 2 4 3 Agriculture 3 3 17 27 29 45 34 27 No Data 35 32 42 35 26 27 22 40 Where a significant shift in emphasis did make itself felt was within the higher clergy.
This, too, is supported by evidence elsewhere. After Seminary After being ordained, a young priest would spend his first years as a Kooperator — an assistant priest — in several different parishes. If all went well and a position opened up, the priest, usually after four or five years, would then be entrusted with a small parish of his own.
The remaining Alumnen can broadly be placed in two categories: Augustin, the so-called Frintaneum, a state-sponsored institute of higher learning founded as a Josephinist alternative to studying in Rome.
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Rudigier, for example, attended in the s after completing his studies at the seminary in Innsbruck. Even in the early s, however, the student body tended to be more conservative and Ultramontane than Josephinist. As Table 7 shows, the largest number of the candidates came from two of the most Ultramontane and conservative dioceses in the Monarchy: On the Frintaneum, see, Bowman, Priest and Parish, pp.
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Once ordained, priests held their office for life and banishing them from the priesthood, which usually included an excommunication from the Church, occurred only in the rarest instances. Thus, in order to exert discipline, the diocese administration tended to resort to other measures. As already stated above, the most common disciplinary measure was shifting priests around: Finally, if all else failed, there was also the diocese-internal correctional facility, the Priesterhaus Mitterberg, which functioned as a correctional and disciplinary facility of last resort.
Between its founding in and the start of the First World War in , it housed a total of priests, usually Source: Schmidt, Collegium Germanicum, p. A good overview of parish finances can be found in, Bowman, Priest and Parish, pp. The length of stay was usually from three to six months, though it some cases it ranged up to several years. This next section will move from the priest to the parish and diocese as a whole, examining networks built up within the priesthood, and by priests in cooperation with lay Catholics.
Here it is best to differentiate between internal and external networks: The former consist of publications, meetings and conferences intended for the most part exclusively for priests. While some priests horribly disliked the facility, requesting their release within a few weeks of arrival, others seemed to bear the confinement rather amicably. There also existed a cadre of about five or six priests who became habitual guests, almost all alcoholics whose brief respites from Mitterberg were followed by predictable patterns of abuse leading to renewed confinement.
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As Nikolaus von Weis, bishop of Speyr, wrote in , The secular clergy from time to time need religious commitment and institutional discipline not less but even more that the people so that they do not become secularized by their constant contact with the world. The first periodical was the Theologisch-Praktische Quartalschrift, whose emergence can be traced back to an initiative by the professors of the Linz seminary in Still in existence today, at its high point in the s the periodical had over 10, subscribers throughout German-speaking central Europe.
Cited in, Gross, War Against Catholicism, p. Articles covered any range of theoretical and practical issues: It was first and foremost the official internal organ of the diocese and contained new diocese regulations as well as state laws pertaining to the office of the priest or the Catholic On the conflict between Doppelbauer and the editorial offices of the Theologisch-Praktische Quartalschrift, see below, p.
There were also regular contributions by the bishop and top diocese officials on any number of items: Just as important were the obituaries, since a death generally also meant an opening in a parish. The smallest of these meetings consisted of the so-called Pastoralkonferenzen, held biannually in each Dekanat beginning in ; the largest was the all-German or, after , all-Austrian Katholikentag, which consisted of thousands of priests and Catholic laymen and lay-women, though they sat in a separate balcony from German-speaking Europe and, later, from Cisleithania.
The Pastoralkonferenzen began their life as small, usually clandestine meetings in Linz centered around a group of professors from the seminary to discuss theological issues — clandestine because they began in at a time when Austrian law did not permit such gatherings and it is unclear whether Bishop Ziegler was even aware of their existence at the start. In , the Pastoralkonferenzen quickly exploded into larger, more official gatherings My thanks to Dr. It was on the initiative of these early Pastoralkonferenzen that the Theologisch-Praktische Quartalschrift was founded.
However, the contrast with their predecessors could not be starker: Instead of regular meetings of a core group of participants the original members met weekly or bi-weekly during the semester , Pastoralkonferenzen were now held twice a year in every Dekanat in the diocese.
This was to be followed by a general discussion that included all participants. The Pastoralkonferenzen were settings in which priests could learn and practice that ideology on the way to becoming a new body politic. Josef Fierer to BO, 8 March On the next level came a series of more irregular meetings at various levels of the hierarchy. No direct records of these meetings remain. Also, the Austrian bishops themselves met at irregular intervals, beginning with the first Bischofskonferenz, hastily organized in , which sought to press the young monarch Francis Joseph and his government into making larger concessions to the Church and to begin negotiations on a Concordat.
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In time, the Bischofskonferenz became one of the central institutions within the Monarchy for both coordinating strategies between the bishops and their dioceses, and for lobbying the state for more Church rights. Begun in as the annual meeting of all Catholic associations in Germany, the meetings convened thousands of Catholics in one city and tried to cover all major questions and themes of the day, from nationalism to the social question and from the importance of a good press to the fine arts.
In many respects, the Katholikentage were the bigger brothers of the Pastoralkonferenzen: They served to give the Austrian clergy an important sense of cohesion into the larger clerical milieu throughout Austria and central Europe.
The diocese of Linz was intimately acquainted with both types of Katholikentage — all-German and Austro-Hungarian. The diocese held its first internal Landeskatholikentag in and the fourth all-German Katholikentag in took place in Linz.
The city then went on to host another all-German Katholikentag in and Austro-Hungarian Katholikentage in and But the Katholikentag differed from the Pastoralkonferenzen in that their topics and presentations could not be so easily manipulated from above. Rainer Lepsius and many of the other works cited on p. Rainer Lepsius, "Parteiensystem und Sozialstruktur: These Katholikentage were only ostensibly Austro- Hungarian — they took place in Cisleithanian cities and the working language was German. August in Linz a.
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September zu Linz. Amtlicher Bericht , Linz, The largest issues would then make their way to the Katholikentag. Together these publications thus created a web — of common knowledge, of language use, of authors, publishers and readers — which bound together the priesthood in Upper Austria. Priests and the Lay Catholic The formation of the interweaving networks that then bound the priests and their parishioners together into a dense clerical milieu also required an intensive and controlled network between the clergy and the laity. For liberals in Upper Austria, these forms of collective action had already begun to play a role before For conservative Catholics, however, there was little associational activity before By mid, the Linz Katholikenverein had become a Zentralkatholikenverein for Upper Austria — a mother organization for the different branches in towns throughout the province — and soon ran into trouble with the authorities.
The local Katholikenvereine were expressly political in their goals and thus had to fold under the new laws barring political associations. Subsequently, the Verein had to undergo two appeal processes and change a number The political aspect and often progressive liberal self-conception evident in choral societes in the s and 50s remains a neglected area of research among historians and musicologists. My thanks to Ryan Minor for bringing these articles to my attention. Other towns had similar associations and came under similar suspicions — the Gesangverein in Braunau, especially, was repeatedly suspected of political activity.
Among the founding members we find, most prominently, Ulrich Ritter von Laveran, a leader of the liberal Nationalgarde, Franz Xaver Vogler, a member of the first liberal Gemeinderat of Linz, as well as a number of other prominent liberals. The Katholikenverein, restricted to men, was followed in by the Katholischer Frauenverein and also developed a large membership; in the process of founding associations reached its peak: The government remained relatively forthcoming to Catholic associations in the early s.
Das Ministerium Buol-Schauenstein, vol. April - Membership levels in these new associations were high. The Zentralverein had 3, members and the Bonifaciusverein 3, All in all, the various associations could already boast over 10, members in These early foundations of Catholic associational life are all too easily forgotten when historians speak of the birth of political Catholicism at the end of the s. During the s, when political publications were banned and censorship remained rigorous it, like other publications, had to reign in its commentary, though certainly traces of the political remained.
The newspaper thrived in its role as the central organ of Catholic public life, and a number of trials, scandals and conflicts during its initial years certainly helped the paper along.
More than any other Catholic In the s and 70s, only Vienna had a more active Catholic-conservative press with 5 newspapers. With the Pressverein, the Catholic Church especially began a successful foray into local publishing, founding newspapers in Ried already in , Wels, Steyr, Braunau, and Gmunden. Publications ranged from devotional literature and pamphlets to calendars, religious guides, books, and other irregular publications.
One to two arrests a year for the editor was not at all uncommon throughout the s. Furthermore, it was also able to bind to this new ideology a large sub-stratum of the population — a clerical milieu — that increasingly looked to the Church for political, social, moral, and economic guidance.
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Howard Bloch, God's Plagiarist: The official history of the Pressverein in Upper Austria is not quite as revealing; a thorough study would be a welcome addition to the historiography. Catholicism and Liberalism, Newly founded Catholic periodicals, pastoral conferences, a popular Catholic press and a dense web of associations must nevertheless spring from some need — some ideological or political desire to significantly alter the status quo.
The following section will focus on this desire for change by examining three arenas of liberal- Catholic conflict: It will begin in the often overlooked s, exploring the range of Catholic-liberal conflict that began to develop in those years.